Chapter 2: Targeting Civilians to Win? Downes and Kathryn McNabb Cochran. And why do states sometimes indiscriminately attack or forcibly expel certain national or ethnic groups? The essays in Rethinking Violence offer fresh and empirically grounded answers to these important questions. This volume will interest political scientists, sociologists, historians, anthropologists, psychologists, students, and citizens interested in warfare, ethnic cleansing, insurgency, terrorism, and conflict resolution.
Not least, it also offers important lessons for scholars and advocates of nonviolent resistance. It looks at the complex environment in which violence evolves; the political ambiguity of the figures of violence and, symmetrically, the ambiguity of politics when it is confronted with violence. It concludes with a recommendation to all actors when looking at the way ahead for the new government. With a new government and parliament backed by a strong mandate, Myanmar has the opportunity to develop a comprehensive programme of legislative reforms in compliance with international human rights norms to protect the rights of the whole population.
Involving civil society, reforming and strengthening the independence of the judiciary and improving access to justice will be indispensable to strengthen the rule of law and build trust in national institutions. To address these objectives, the new leadership must first face its greatest challenge: violence, which is endemic at all levels of society.
Partly a legacy of five decades of authoritarian rule under the previous military dictatorship, violence in Myanmar involves ethnic and religious conflicts, internally displaced people, incitement and discrimination, land grab, forced eviction and child abuse. Human rights violations are systemic and legitimised through a vast number of complex legislations enacted by previous rulers.
The current Constitution was framed to discriminate against minorities and civil society.
So far, there has been no attempt to structurally address the serious human rights concerns it causes on the ground by any party, to the contrary. The second challenge facing the new leadership is a need for an entire overhaul of the judicial system, without which the reform process will be obstructed. An independent judiciary capable of enforcing legislation fairly and consistently is necessary for the operation of the rule of law.
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The separation of powers and the independence of the judiciary in Myanmar are guaranteed by the Constitution yet are hindered by the control the executive exercises over the judiciary. There is also widespread evidence of judicial corruption. The report also stated that training given to individuals holding judicial positions was inadequate. This follows the signature of a number of bilateral ceasefire agreements with 14 ethnic armed groups since Human rights violations are committed by all parties to the conflicts and civilians bear the burden of the ongoing fighting.
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Allegations of forced recruitment, child and underage recruitment — notably on the part of ethnic armed groups — are still made. Over 96, people remain displaced in Kachin and northern Shan States as a result of the conflict.
In southern Shan State, many of those displaced by the clashes in late have reportedly now returned. However, 2, people remain displaced, some in camps lacking adequate drinking water and sanitation. This book asks how, why, and when states and non-state actors use violence against one another, and examines the effectiveness of various forms of political violence.derivid.route1.com/el-cartel-de-los-sapos.php
Violence in health care settings: rethinking actions.
In the process of addressing these issues, the essays make two conceptual moves that illustrate the need to reconsider the way violence by states and non-state actors has typically been studied and understood. The first is to think of violence not as dichotomous, as either present or absent, but to consider the wide range of nonviolent and violent options available and ask why actors come to embrace particular strategies.
The second is to explore the dynamic nature of violent conflicts, developing explanations that can account for the eruption of violence at particular moments in time. The arguments focus on how changes in the balance of power between and among states and non-state actors generate uncertainty and threat, thereby creating an environment conducive to violence.
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