Guide Contemporary Police Organization and Management: Issues and Trends

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The Bureau of Justice Assistance, an office of the U.


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Department of Justice, formed an expert advisory panel to assess the impacts that technology and related emerging social trends could have on criminal justice and to identify appropriate responses. The RAND Justice Policy Program teamed with the panel, called the Criminal Justice Technology Forecasting Group CJTFG , to 1 identify major, emerging social and technology trends likely in the next three to five years; 2 assess the impacts, both threats and opportunities, that these trends could have on criminal justice; and 3 identify promising responses to the trends, including recommendations that advise agencies on how to use key technologies more effectively, advise creators and funders on making technologies more useful and less risky to implement, and directly support the criminal justice field.

Through a series of workshops held from through , the team identified nearly two dozen trends that coalesced around six themes. A new report, summarized here, discusses these themes and the recommendations that the team generated. The table below shows the trends and recommended action plans "ways ahead". The single biggest takeaway from the experts: Information technology IT opportunities such as big data, analytics and artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things abound, but taking advantage of those opportunities is thwarted by the lack of clear business cases for them; a lack of business processes for implementing them; and a lack of knowledge of common security, privacy, and civil-rights protections to prevent their misuse.

The experts emphasized that the lack of clear business cases and the lack of implementation business processes impede investing in and taking advantage of emerging information technologies. They also cited the importance of identifying stakeholders' needs and getting their buy-in when developing business cases and implementing new technologies. One example of the need for business cases was a call to better establish the vital role of fusion centers in providing useful information, products, and services for law enforcement.

As an example of how to develop business cases, the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative has developed information exchanges between agencies that service offenders and the rest of the criminal justice system. Recommendation 1: Develop business cases for key technologies and common process templates for implementing new technologies.

Data and analytics are already playing a role in predictive policing pinpointing people, places, and times at increased risk for crimes , as well as in risk-based bail setting and sentencing.

Yet potential users lack awareness of existing training opportunities, references, and other resources on criminal justice applications, especially those related to cybersecurity. The experts called for research into expanding the availability of training and reference materials and improving information-sharing and for pilot projects that would integrate data, analytics, and IT into community-based practices. One priority is the pressing need for improved situational-awareness displays to identify, communicate, and respond quickly to threats; the technology for providing these displays is rapidly emerging, so improving them is a matter of leveraging that technology.

Another priority is for the federal government to support crime-analysis capabilities for state and local agencies; the CJTFG developed a white paper on how such support might work an appendix to the report. Recommendation 2: Conduct research to improve how criminal justice technology information is made available to both practitioners and researchers. Despite increasing pressure to employ cybersecurity and protect the public's privacy and civil rights when using the new big data, analytics, and surveillance technologies, guidelines remain inconsistent, legal precedent is often lacking resulting in security and privacy concerns , and the public's expectations, shaped by television shows and advertising, often fail to be met.

On top of those issues is the fact that greater encryption of electronic devices is increasingly hampering law enforcement agencies from obtaining needed evidence "going dark". Recommendation 3: Integrate security, privacy, and civil-rights protections into the common business process from Recommendation 1 for adapting new technologies.

Recommendation 4: Educate the public on how criminal justice technologies work or do not work in the real world. Recommendation 5: Collect data on the extent and severity of the going-dark problem. To realize the true benefits of emerging technologies, agencies must integrate information on a national scale, and managing growing floods of digital evidence is a key part of this imperative and a rapidly emerging trend.

However, small, resource-poor agencies lack the needed capabilities. Organizational cultures can resist information-sharing. Further, some brands of record-management and other IT systems that criminal justice systems use frequently do not support data interoperability and sometimes even exclude information-sharing in their licensing provisions; the CJTFG cosponsored a resolution to require making record-management system data exportable for sharing with other systems.

Recommendation 6: Research changing cultures to support information-sharing and safeguarding. Recommendation 7: Develop regional models for information-sharing capabilities. Agencies face conflicting pressures to minimize use of force while cracking down on violence and terrorism. Missteps can quickly affect police—community relations and alienate groups of people from each other. Body-worn cameras are a promising tool for accountability of both police and the public; the experts suggested examining their use for investigative purposes as well.

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CJTFG experts also expressed a strong need for less-lethal weapons capable of subduing and restraining violent attackers, in order to provide alternatives to lethal force or grappling. Recommendation 8: Identify practices and technologies that can both reduce crime and improve community relations. Recommendation 9: Explore international exchanges on using cameras for investigative and accountability purposes. Recommendation Develop new immobilization and restraint devices to provide alternatives to lethal uses of force.

Implementing new technologies can have both unintended consequences and major, sometimes unanticipated, benefits. Technological developments often outpace associated developments in law, regulations, policy, culture, and knowledge regarding effective use. In addition, many of the technologies are young, and costs might remain prohibitive.

In the business cases recommendation 1 , including the need for security, privacy, and civil-rights protections recommendation 3 can help protect against unintended drawbacks, although care must be taken to avoid stifling the emergence of unanticipated benefits. Two emerging technologies appear worth following.

The first is rapid deoxyribonucleic acid DNA typing coupled with use of DNA to create profiles, and the second is technologies to detect guns, knives, and other weapons at a distance. Recommendation Assess the potential of remote weapon-detection capabilities.

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Contemporary Police Organization And Management Issues And Trends Printable File PDF Book

Going forward, the initial priorities are to establish the business cases for the new technologies; develop the work processes needed to implement them; and integrate them with the core security, privacy, and civil-rights protections needed for successful implementation. He retired from the Alexandria Police Department with the rank of senior deputy chief after 25 years of service. He also served as a project manager at the National Police Foundation. Civil unrest will continue to be a challenge for law enforcement in Currently, most agencies do not address crowd control training until they are found ill-prepared by a large disturbance.

I predict that more academies and agencies nationwide will begin to deliver training to ensure every police officer is equipped to respond to civil unrest and the challenges posed by today's professional rioters. Top Tip: Team training should take place shortly before any anticipated event, and at least once a year. The latter can be an opportunity to have officers clean and inspect their tactical equipment.

Dan Marcou is an internationally-recognized police trainer who was a highly-decorated police officer with 33 years of full-time law enforcement experience.

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Law enforcement needs to prepare for the proliferation of the Internet of Things IoT such as wearable technology, internet-connected home assistants and vehicle infotainment systems. Police agencies need to be able to substantiate the authenticity of digital evidence, while still providing access that offers verifiable accountability. This has the potential to become a mounting financial and logistical challenge. However, departments must diligently consider various issues such as rules of evidence, cybersecurity and fiscal sustainability before deciding what solution meets their needs now and in the future.

Genetic genealogy will successfully be used to identify active serial offenders in addition to solving cold cases. New forensic technology advances, such as DNA methylation analysis and phenotype prediction of novel physical traits, will assist with these identifications. Unfortunately, we will continue to resist research and data partly because U.

The result might be the institutionalization of evidence-based approaches to policing based partly on analyzing and assessing data with the exponential growth of leveraged technology and more crime analysts. Top Tip: If police leaders can build a receptivity to scientific research in policing, then we might understand the impact of our responses by reviewing and using the best available evidence to inform, challenge and strategically inform our long-term decisions, policies and practices, and place cops at times and locations of crime to make us more effective in improving public safety.

I predict that law enforcement agencies will push for more social service involvement with their homeless populations , as most issues facing these populations are best handled by those outside of law enforcement.

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Communities across the country have already begun to make this shift and I expect this to continue in Top Tip: Engage your social service community and encourage them to respond to calls involving those who are experiencing homelessness alongside your officers. By doing so you can start the process of getting people the help they need from those who are best suited to provide assistance. More law enforcement agencies will hire civilian PIOs.

This concept has been trending upward for approximately five years and it makes sense. Former journalists or candidates with communications backgrounds make for strong storytellers, which is traditionally a skill set law enforcement has lacked. This is not to say sworn PIOs can't do the job and do it well, but hiring media professionals to do a media job makes sense. Top Tip : The civilian PIO or lead spokesperson should be a direct report to the police chief of sheriff. Barriers cause delays and there is little time for delay in today's split-second news cycle.

Local law enforcement agencies will be asked to assist federal law enforcement in the handling of potential targeted mass violence subjects who suffer from mental illness.

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These subjects often do not reach the threshold for prosecution and diversion to mental health linkages is a more appropriate response. TOP TIP: Local agencies should reach out to their local mental health authority to determine what resources are available for these subjects. There will be continued training emphasis on responding to persons in crisis, the mentally ill and impaired. Health and wellness programs will be adopted by more agencies as part of officer survival. Technology will become increasingly important to the delivery of training from use-of-force simulation that approaches virtual reality to the development of on-demand learning modules that will enable officers to call up training they need while working on a problem in the field much as we might ask Alexa or Google for the weather forecast.

Top Tip: Body worn and other cameras are providing us with improved feedback on the effectiveness of training and increased transparency for law enforcement. Trainers can be of value in educating the public, politicians and pundits of the realities of use of force and other aspects of police work. He served 38 years in law enforcement in ranks from patrolman to chief. Millennial officers will continue advocating for increased resources for emotional wellness and a stigma-free culture in policing.

While many administrators will see the value, they will be challenged in successful implementation if they are resistant to seeking out mental health services for themselves, having come up through the ranks when counseling and psychiatric medications were viewed as only for the weak. As a result, clinical depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD will go untreated in police officers and suicides will remain the same or increase because continued stigma prevents cops from seeking out services from a licensed mental health professional.